MAJOR TRENDS OF THE DECADE
1960- The Denver Public Schools begin a four-year study comparing media
combinations for effectiveness in language instruction.
[READ MORE ABOUT THIS PROJECT]
(tv) 1960- South Carolina begins development of a closed-circuit ITV network, broadcasting to fifteen high schools in nine cities. (Murphy and Gross, 1966)
(tv) 1961- The radio and television studios of WGBH in Boston are utterly destroyed in a fire; the station will rebuild and will go on to be a leading producer in educational television.
(tv) 1961- The Ford Foundation's Fund for the Advancement of Education invests over $20 million in 250 school systems and 50 colleges across the country to promote use of instructional television. (Cuban, 1986)
"By the 1960s almost every course in the public school, college or university curriculum was being taught somewhere by either open- or closed-circuit television, on educational or commercial stations or in educational institutions."(tv) 1962- The Educational Television Facilities Act allocates $32 million in federal matching funds for construction of educational television stations. (Encyclopedia of Television)
(Saettler, 1990, p. 367)
(tv) 1962- The National Instructional Television Library (NITL), a national distribution center for recorded ITV programs, is formed. It is administered by the National Educational Television and Radio Center (NETRC) . (U. Md. web site)
(tv) 1962- The Agency for Instructional Television is formed. (AIT web site)
(tv) 1962- The report Television in the Lives of Our Children is published. The result of a series of studies conducted between 1958 and 1960, the conclusion of this, the first major North American study on the subject, is that television has an enormous impact on some children but an insignificant impact on others. (Saettler, 1990)
(tv) 1962- The Telstar satellite enables transmits the first transatlantic television signal (Fact Monster web site)
(tv) 1962- Wilbur Schramm of Stanford's Institute for Communication Research publishes the results of a study of ITV, stating that "there can no longer be any doubt that students learn efficiently from instructional television." (Schramm, 1962)
(film) 1963- DAVI defines audiovisual communications: "that branch of educational theory and practice concerned primarily with the design and use of messages which control the learning process." (Saettler, 1990)
(film) 1963- The Changing Role of the AudioVisual Process in Education: a Definition and Glossary of Related Terms is published. This book's use of the term audiovisual communication rather than audiovisual instruction indicates a paradigm shift, from emphasizing visual media as a means of giving students concrete experience of subject matter to an emphasis on all aspects of the communication process. (Saettler, 1990)
(tv) 1963- The NETRC becomes National Educational Television (NET). Since its mechanism for program distribution consists of mailing videotapes to stations, simultaneous broadcast is impossible; thus NET resembles a film library more than it does a network. (Saettler, 1990)
(tv) 1963- The FCC establishes a new class of television station, the Instructional Television Fixed Service (ITFS), allowing a single licensee to apply for up to four channels. The Service uses channels from 2,500 to 2,690 megacycles; the signal can only be picked up by special receiving equipment. The first stations would be on-air by the end of 1964. (Murphy and Gross, 1966; Saettler, 1990)
(tv) 1963- Over 10,000 3rd and 4th graders in Michigan receive some physical education lessons via ITV, with lessons teaching new, running-intensive games broadcast by Central Michigan ETV. Most teachers view the lessons as successful and report that children play the new games before and after school and at recess. (Burke, 1965)
1963- A survey indicates that, during the 1963-64 school year, 88% of educational
television stations broadcast at least one series of Instructional Television
lessons for classroom use, with almost half of the lessons serving as a
supplement to specific courses. (National Instructional Television Library,
[READ MORE INFORMATION ABOUT THE RESULTS OF THIS SURVEY]
(tv) 1964 through 1965- Approximately 36 1/2 million enrollments are reported in telecourses in 1,223 school systems nationally. (McKune, 1966)
(tv) 1964- A survey indicates that most local ETV stations broadcast live or erase locally produced taped shows immediately after broadcast. A commercial-quality recorder costs $50,000 to $70,000. (Murphy and Gross, 1966)
(tv) 1964- Congress approves over $1 million in funds for Samoan educational reform. By 1966, most students' education is totally organized around televised instruction. On-site teachers prepare students for telecast lessons; these lessons are taught by mainland studio teachers who have not consulted the on-site teachers about the curriculum. By the late 1970s, tv use in Samoan classrooms is greatly reduced. (Cuban, 1986; Saettler, 1990)
(tv) 1964- Color television is in U.S. homes for the first time.
(tv) 1964- Acting on the underlying assumption that "any practical problem in education could be solved by assembling a group of scientists and providing them with the necessary resources to solve the problem," the Office of Education establishes four university based research and development centers. "The emphasis was on achieving the traditional goals of education more efficiently at less cost and to develop cultural conformity of ghetto children and minority groups." These R&D centers fail to live up to expectations. (Saettler, 1990, p. 415)
(tv) 1964- The Ford Foundation increases funding for NET with a $6 million per year grant, enabling NET to change its emphasis from program distribution to program production. Between 1964 and 1968, NET produces a variety of creative and innovative programming unlike anything then available on commercial networks. (Encyclopedia of Television)
(tv) 1964- Inspired by demand for a mechanism for disseminating information about media research, the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) is created. (Saettler, 1990)
"If there is one overriding weakness in educational television as we know it today, it lies in our two-word approach to its challenge. To succeed, we will need to narrow the distance between education and television, between the television expert who knows how to use the medium and the educator who hopefully knows what to use if for. Without this working collaboration, the results will continue to be largely amateurish and ineffective."(tv) 1965- FCC expands its allocation of educational channels from 242 to 632. (Truby, 1968)
(tv) 1965- The National Instructional Television Library is renamed the National Center for College and School Television and is administered by Indiana University. (U. Md. web site)
(tv) 1965- The Carnegie Corporation establishes the Carnegie Commission on Educational Television. (Saettler, 1990)
(tv) 1965- The Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 expands federal funding of ETV research. It also provides funding for regional "education laboratories" to replace the university based R&D centers. Failure of these laboratories to provide reliable and effective mechanisms for educational change through technology led to their rapid decline. (Saettler, 1990)
(tv) 1965- Survey results indicate that, on average, ETV stations devote 27% of their broadcast hours to K-12 instructional programs. (Griffith, 1965)
(radio) 1966- The Johnson Foundation and the National Educational Radio division of the National Association of Broadcasters sponsor a conference on "Educational Radio as a National Resource." The conference calls for greater attention to be paid to and more funding to be allocated to educational radio. ("Call for attention to radio", Educational Technology, Jan. 30, 1967)
(radio) 1966- Triangle Stations releases "Educasting," an FM instruction method, for national use. This mechanism enables students to receive instruction at home using a special FM radio and to communicate back to the teacher by pressing buttons on the unit. (Educational Technology, March 15, 1967)
(radio) 1966- At this time, most educational radio stations broadcast between 20 and 60 hours per week, with about 11% of stations mainly broadcasting instructional programs to in-school K-12 audiences, 85% mainly broadcasting programs of interest to the general public, and 4% of stations dividing their broadcast hours evenly between the two areas. (Jennings, 1966)
"It is significant that, by and large, the really innovating schools are doing little with television."(tv) 1966- Teachers' implementation of the new television technologies continues to lag.
(Murphy and Gross, 1966, p. 41)
(tv) 1966- Westinghouse Electric Corporation announces development of a one man television studio, heralding it as a "breakthrough in closed circuit television operation" which will place production of instructional television within the grasp of schools of all sizes. (Educational Technology, March 15, 1967)
(tv) 1966- DAVI publishes standards for audio-visual services in elementary and secondary schools and in higher education, focusing on use of new technologies and on local production of instructional materials. (Wilkerson, 1983)
(tv) 1966- Atlanta public schools begin to give career guidance to high school students via instructional television. The "That's My Business" series of career profiles is broadcast to high schools on WETV. (Hopkins, 1966)
(tv) 1966- May 31: The first live intercontinental television classroom exchange occurs as a French language class at West Bend High School in West Bend, Wisconsin meets live via satellite with an English language class at the Lycee Henri IV in Paris, France. (Dreyfus and Gumpert, 1966)
(tv) 1966- At this time, the average half-hour commercial entertainment program costs approximately $66,000; the average ITV program of the same length costs between $150 and $200. (Murphy and Gross, 1966)
“Whether measured by the numbers of students affected, or by the quality of the product, or by the advancement of learning, televised teaching is still in a rudimentary stage of development. The medium can take credit for helping understaffed schools to cope with ever-increasing enrollments. But television has not transformed education, nor has it significantly improved the learning of most students.”(tv) 1966- CATV, an early version of cable, becomes available in some areas. Groups of cable systems feed television signals via cable or microwave to distant viewers. Some ETV producers are pleased by greater exposure, while others fear competition from distant stations. (Murphy and Gross, 1966)
(Murphy and Gross, 1966)
(tv) 1966- At this time, there are approximately 1,000 closed-circuit ITV networks in the country; with about 250 of these broadcasting to K-12 schools. (Unlike broadcast stations, closed-circuit networks are not subject to government regulation at this time; therefore numbers can only be approximated). Most do not have studios and simply originate programs live from the classroom. (Murphy and Gross, 1966)
(tv) 1966- In response to the limited distribution abilities of NET, the Ford Foundation gives $10 million to develop an interconnected Public Broadcast Laboratory. (Saettler, 1990)
"For many reasons, such as the nature of the medium itself, the massive campaign that launched it, and its connection to the world outside education, ITV has escaped the fate of educational radio and film. However, it still occupies a marginal position in American education, despite the ever increasing number of students it reaches."(radio and tv) 1967- The Public Broadcasting Act of 1967 becomes law. It calls for additional facilities funding, the creation of the Corporation for Public Broadcasting, and extensive study of educational television and radio. (Saettler, 1990) It amends the Communications Act of 1934. (Encyclopedia of Television)
(Murphy and Gross, 1966, p. 12)
(tv) 1967- “Educational television” is officially renamed “public television.” (Encyclopedia of Television)
(tv) 1967- The Corporation for Public Broadcasting allows NET to serve as the “public television network.” This will change in 1969 with the creation of PBS. (Encyclopedia of Television)
(tv) 1967- The Carnegie Commission on ETV begins to use the term public television rather than educational television, believing that the public would be more likely to support noncommercial television by this new name.
1968- At this point, the average ETV station spends $500,000 annually and
broadcasts between 10 and 13 hours daily.
Typically, programming falls into 4 categories: General education; Adult education for formal credit; "School of the air" programs for direct home instruction; and Public relations programming for information and enrichment. (Truby, 1968)
(tv) 1968- The AASL and DAVI recommend merger of school library and audio-visual programs into one unit whenever possible. (Wilkerson, 1983)
(tv) 1968- The National Center for College and School Television becomes the National Instructional Television Center; it would become self-supporting in 1970. (U. Md. web site)
(tv) 1968- The Children's Television Workshop (CTW) is formed to produce Sesame Street, The Electric Company, and other educational programs. These programs, developed outside of traditional institutions of education and based on extensive formative research, will be among the most innovative and effective educational programs ever produced for children. (Saettler, 1990)
(tv) 1968- Learning from Television: What the Research Says is published. This report, which summarizes nearly four hundred research studies in instructional television, concludes that in 255 of 393 cases, no significant difference between television instruction and conventional instruction was found. (Saettler, 1990)
1968- On April 23, 1968, "One Nation, Indivisible?", a program dealing
with the issue of the racial crisis in America was broadcast to schools
across the United States.
[READ MORE ABOUT "ONE NATION, INDIVISIBLE?"]
(tv) 1969- NET merges with New York educational station WNDT, becoming WNET and thereby gaining access to production studios.
(tv) 1969- The Corporation for Public Broadcasting creates the Public Broadcasting Service (PBS), passing over NET to create a new network. PBS will not produce programs but will distribute programs via interconnection.
1969- November 10: Sesame Street premieres.
[READ MORE ABOUT SESAME STREET]
(tv) 1969- A study on the effects of research sponsored by Title VII of the National Defense Education Act finds that the research assisted in the development of quality educational television, helped teachers to accept the new media, and contributed to the application of a systems approach to solving educational problems. (Filep and Schramm, 1970) Other scholars conclude that the goals of Title VII resulted from an unsophisticated understanding of information dissemination and a naïve view of the mechanisms for bringing about change in the schools. (McKeegan, 1971)
1969- The Department of Audiovisual Instruction (DAVI) becomes a national
affiliate of the National Education Association (NEA). (Library of Congress
name authority file)
|Introduction||Sitemap||Bibliography||Web Resources||21st Century|
update: August 26, 2005
Comments to: Mary Miller firstname.lastname@example.org
Created by Mary Miller and Teresa Cruce
for Dr. Thomas Reeves' UGA class EDIT 6100, spring 2002